Yesterday, PhD candidate Kirk Barrow submitted his first (!) paper (arXiv), titled “First Light: Exploring the Spectra of High-Redshift Galaxies in the Renaissance Simulations”. Correlations between physical and observational properties of the first galaxies are imperative to determine before JWST launches in October 2018. We have examined two of the most massive galaxies in detail in mock spectra, imaging, and photometry and then searched for any trends in the ~1,600 galaxies in the sample. There is very high variability in the smallest galaxies (like the ultra faint dwarfs around the Milky Way), but the trends settle into various relationships above 1 million solar masses in stars when star formation occurs on a more regular basis. We also found that viewing angle can account for a 3-fold difference in emergent flux due to the absorption of intervening gas in the galaxy.
The AGORA Collaboration, primarily led by Ji-hoon Kim, aims to compare various computational astrophysics simulation code in several different tests. In our second paper (arXiv), we use the isolated disk galaxy as a test bed, comparing nine codes. Differences between the final results are small and are more dependent on the input physics instead of the underlying numerical methods. This work verifies the use of past, current, and future galaxy simulations as an accurate tool to understand the astrophysical processes governing star and galaxy formation through cosmic time.
My graduate student, Daegene Koh, and I have just submitted a new paper (arXiv) on extending semi-numerical reionization models to include ionizing photons from the first stars and galaxies. These objects are often neglected because they may contribute a small fraction of the photon budget to reionization. However, we show that they do play a role during the start of reionization and alter the topology, i.e. biasing toward smaller ionized bubbles, at redshifts greater than ~10. With this new extension, we can explore the effects on reionization from the smallest star-forming dark matter halos and perhaps make predictions for upcoming 21cm detectors that will directly probe the Epoch of Reionization.
See the movie below to visually inspect the differences, where the left panel includes low-mass halos, whereas the right does not. The box size is 100 comoving Mpc, and the movie runs from redshift 25 to 6.
During my visit to the NSF and US Senate, I was interviewed by the NSF for an educational video on solar storms and their effects. Take a look!
Original air date: July 18, 2016.
About a month ago, we submitted a new paper on the build-up of the X-ray radiation background. Here we used the Renaissance Simulations to estimate the number density of high-mass X-ray binaries from the first metal-free (Population III) stars. We found that these binaries produce about 6 eV of energy in the X-rays per hydrogen atom, potentially pre-heating the intergalactic medium to about 1000 K. These effects are important to consider when deciphering future 21-cm observations of the early universe that can tell us the last cosmic phase transition, reionization.
My graduate student, Daegene Koh, submitted his first paper to MNRAS two months ago, titled “Amplification of Magnetic Fields in a Primordial HII Region and Supernova”. Late last week, we resubmitted the paper after making revisions after a favorable referee report, and posted it on arXiv today. Here we run a suite of three simulations, focusing on the amplification of magnetic fields during the generation of the ionized region and in the aftermath of its supernova. We find that through small-scale dynamo action the magnetic field grows primarily when the supernova blastwave can cool efficiently, fragments, and becomes turbulent. On average, the fields are amplified by a factor of 100 in the remnant shell and up to a factor of 106 within the shock. These strengthened fields will propagate into the first generations of galaxies, possibly affecting the nature of their star formation.
Congratulations, DK, on your first paper!
On May 25th, I joined a group of people involved with the planetarium show Solar Superstorms to discuss impacts of space weather on Earth and the importance of computational science and visualization. This event was organized by the NSF in support for a bill on space weather monitoring sponsored by Sen. Bill Peters (D-MI). It was a totally new and pleasurable experience to speak in front of Senate staffers and interact with the Senator. I spoke for 7 minutes on the importance of further supporting computational science and how visualization plays an essential role in the scientific process. The event was standing room only with over 100 people in attendance, and from later feedback, it was very well received. I hope in the future I can be involved in more events that have an impact on science policy.
Read more about the event in the Georgia Tech story.
Yesterday, we submitted a new paper (arXiv) focusing on the physical properties of the first generations of galaxies in the universe and their role during cosmic reionization. This effort was led by Hao Xu at UC – San Diego. We analyzed all of the metal-enriched galaxies in the Renaissance Simulations in three different large-scale environments. We found that the galaxy properties are broadly independent on environment and redshift, given that they form during the epoch of reionization. These low-mass galaxies are largely responsible for providing the bulk of ionizing photons to reionization with the fraction of UV photons escaping into the intergalactic medium increasing with decreasing halo mass (~5% at 10^8 solar masses and 40-60% at 10^7 solar masses). However these small galaxies are vulnerable to feedback suppressing star formation for large periods of time. Here we quantify this “galaxy-halo occupation fraction” and find that it’s a increasing value (from 10% at 10^7 solar masses to 100% at 3 x 10^8 solar masses) as halos can cool through atomic transitions around 10^8 solar masses.